Did You Know?


Prof. C.P. Wong

Dr. Raj Pulugurtha

Dr. Himani Sharma

Jack Moon


The objective of this research is to explore, develop, characterize and evaluate unique nanoscale packaging materials for thin film passive components, IC-to-package and package-to-board interconnections and for substrate wiring, dielectrics, and through package vias with a variety of electrical, mechanical, physical thermal, environmental and bio-medical properties to enable ultraminiaturized SOP-based packages, modules and systems. 


Industry’s Focus

Nanomaterials Research at GT PRC

High k Thin Films
- Sputtered thin films
- 1-2 mF/cm2
- Conformal nanodielectrics
- 100 uF/cm2
High Surface Area Electrodes
- Trench structures
- Nanoelectrodes
Magnetic Core
- Ferrites and microcomposites
- 100 nH/mm2, 10 MHz
- Magnetic nanostructures
- 1000 nH/mm2, 100-1000 MHz
RF Dielectrics
- Permittivity: 2.5-8
- Permeability: 1
- Nanoscale super-paraelectric and super-paramagnetic materials
- Multiferroic materials
- Permittivity: 20-100
- Permeability: 5-100
- Solders
- 150 micron pitch reliability
- Nanometal and nanocomposite interconnections
- 20-50 micron pitch reliability
- 150-250 C processing
- LiCoO2, LIPON, Li-C
- 0.1 mAhr/cm2 mm
- Nanoelectrodes
- Conformal electrolytes
- 1 mAhr/cm2 mm
Thermal Interfaces
- Thermal grease, indium
- 0.1 oC cm2/W
- CNT and graphite based nanocomposite TIM
- 0.001 oC cm2/W
Hermetic and Biocompatible Packaging Materials
- Parylene, Nitride or Carbon passivation
- Low temperature conformal hermetic coatings


1. Nanodielectric materials
The objective of this research is to synthesize novel nanoscale super-paraelectric particles and thin films with 10-50X enhancement in permittivity compared to today’s organic and LTCC dielectrics without compromising loss, frequency and thermal stability. Another objective of this research is to enhance high-frequency magnetic properties in low loss dielectrics with nanoscale core-shell particles. The focus is on benign and scalable chemical solution routes to synthesize unique functional nanoparticles at low cost.

Figure 1: PRC demonstration of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposite dielectrics for RF dielectrics.

2. Nanoelectrodes
The objective of this to explore and develop novel high surface area electrodes for enhancing the energy densities in nanocapacitors and batteries.

Figure 2: Nanostructured electrodes with conformal coatings for high density capacitors.

3. Conformal dielectrics and electrolytes
The objective of this research is to develop surface-activated conformal films for ultrathin dielectrics and electrolytes using nanoscale additive processes such as electroless plating, electrochemical plating and ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) to enhance the performance with nanocapacitors and nanobatteries.

Figure 3: Surface activated solution reactions for low-cost conformal dielectrics on nanoelectrodes.

4. Nano-thermal interfaces
The objective of this project is to lower the TIM resistance to less than 0.001 C cm2/W with thin nanoscale thermal structures of CNT and graphite nanocomposites. The focus is on addressing the interfacial thermal resistance with unique nanostructured bonding layers that have phonon match and chemical compatibility with CNT.

Figure 4: PRC focus on thermal interfaces with nanoscale materials and interface engineering.

5. Nanointerconnection materials
The objective of this thrust is to develop novel barriers, and nanoparticle and nanocomposite bonding layers for fine pitch, electromigration resistance and thin film bonding at low temperatures. Focus of these technologies are discussed in the “Interconnections, Assembly and Reliability” webpage.

6. Nanomaterials for hermeticity and reliability
The objective of this research is to develop low-temperature deposited conformal ceramic coatings to enhance the package hermeticity, tissue compatibility and reliability of electronic and bioelectronic systems.


1. Embedded MEMS, Actives and Passives (EMAP)


1. S. Lee, M. J. Yim, R. N. Master,C. P. Wong, D. F. Baldwin, “Near Void-Free Assembly Development of Flip Chip Using No-Flow Underfill”, IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 106-114 (2009).
2. R. W. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Yim, K. S. Moon, D. Q. Lu, and C. P. Wong, “Enhanced Electrical Properties of Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive with -Conjugated Self-Assembled Molecular Wire Junctions”, IEEE Transactions and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 32, No. 3, p. 677-683 (2009).
3. Y. Xiu, Fei Xiao, D. W. Hess, C. P. Wong, “Superhydrophobic Optically Transparent Silica Films Formed with a Eutectic Liquid”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, No. 5, p.1610-1615 (2009).
4. Jin-Hyun Hwang et al., “Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of polymer composite based RF capacitors”, Journal of Microelectronic Engineering, Microelectronic Engineering Volume 85, Issue 3, Pages 553-558, March 2008.
5. N. Altunyurt, et al., “Antenna Miniaturization using Magneto-Dielectric Substrates”, Proceedings of the 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC, pp. 801-808, May 2009.


1. No Flow Flip-chip Materials the Next Generation of High Performance Low cost Processes. (US Patent No. 6,180,696 1/30/2001 - C.P. Wong, S. Shi).
2. Organic Based Dielectric Materials and Methods for Miniaturized RF Components, and Low Temperature Coefficient of Permittivity Composite Devices Having Tailored Filler Materials", US patent filed in May 2006.
3. High density capacitor processes, US patent filed in October 2008.